QAIDAH KULLIYAH WA QAIDAH JUZIYYAH
A. QAIDAH KULLIYYAH AND HIS QAIDAH JUZIYYAH
1. FIRST OF QAIDAH KULLIYYAH: الامور بمقصدها
Meaning: Charity Depend On Intention.
1.1. IMPLEMENTATION OF QAIDAH
Someone who killed Moslem without the rule which allowed it, he will punished by law (qishash or diyat) if he did it willfully. Otherwise, someone who did it intuitively, he will get another punishment.
1.2. QAIDAH JUZIYYAH
a. فيما يلتبس دون غيره إشتراط التعيين
ودليل ذلك قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم: وإنما لكل امرئ ما نوى (الحديث) فهذا ظاهر فى اشتراط التعيين
Meaning: intentional requirement for deed which is rather similar with another deed must became clear intention.
For instance: praying dzuhur and ashar have equality from amount roka’at (four roka’at) but we must do with the clear intention (ashar praying or dzuhur praying depend on time which is held).
ما يشترط فيه التعيين فاالخطاء فيه مبطل كاالخطاء من الصوم إلى الصلاة وعكسه
Meaning: intentional requirement for deed if there is mistake so deed is breaking by fault intention.
For instance: you intend fasting but your intention break by intention speaking of praying for doing fasting.
ما يجب له التعرض له جملة ولايشترط تعيينه تفصيلا إذا عينه وأخطاء ضر لايشترط تعيين عدد الركعات فلو نوى الظهر خمسا أو ثلاثا لم يصح نوى الإقتداء بزيد فبان عمرا لم يصح
Meaning: charity which is obligated by drafted intention and it is not necessary for detail intention if you mistake by doing detail intention, your charity will not be legitimated.
For instance: you will not be legitimated for praying dzuhur by saying intention five or three roka’at and imam to Zaid by saying imam to Umar.
ما لايشترط التعرض له جملة و تفصيلا إذا عينه وأخطاء لم يضر ركعتين مكان الصلاة
Meaning: charity which is not obligated by drafted intention and detail intention if you mistake by doing it, your charity still will be legitimated.
For instance: if you will pray dzuhur and you intend to pray in Klaten but you are in Sragen, your praying still will be legitimated.
2. SECOND OF QAIDAH KULLIYYAH: اليقين لا يزال با الشك
Meaning: Charity with intention can’t be lost by doubtful
2.1. IMPLEMENTATION OF QAIDAH
Someone who has taken ritual abolition (wudlu) and doubtfully he broke his wudlu. So, he don’t wudlu again because his intention that he has wudlu.
2.2. QAIDAH JUZIYYAH
الاصل بقاء ما كان على ما كان
Meaning: the basic something still continuous as far as the beginning law.
For instance: someone eat snack in the last night of fasting, thus he doubtfully “Has sunrise or no?” so his fasting still be legitimated.
Meaning: the basic something is disappear
For instance: someone who has paid his debt but the debtor said that he has not paid his debt yet. So, he still has debt.
الاصل في كل حادث تقديره بأقرب زمان
Meaning: the basic law from circumstances approximately near with time
For instances: someone had been taking abolition from well since he staying at his home. Sometimes, mouse has fallen and he must pray again (qadla) just a moment.
الاصل براءة الذمة
Meaning: the basic law is someone free from abundance
For instance: A said that B has debt from him but B said that he has not debt from A so A must give the evidence if he can’t show the evidence, B is free from debt.
الأ صل فى الأبضاع التحريم
Meaning: the basic of sex activity is prohibited
For instance: if someone doubtfully has married woman or no so the basic law said that he has not married because woman is prohibited.
3. THIRD QAIDAH KULLIYYAH
المشقة تجلب التيسير
Meaning: Hard bring easy
3.1. IMPLEMENTATION OF QAIDAH
You don’t fasting someday on Ramadhon month because you sick, you must pay as your debt in other day (qadla).
3.2. QAIDAH JUZIYYAH
إذا ضاق الأمر إتسع وإذا إتسع ضاق
Meaning: if something is tight it will be able to become width, if something is width it will be able to become tight.
For instance: Someone can eat snake if he very hungry and there is no food except it
الضرورات تبيح المحظورات
Meaning: perforce can allow something prohibition
الضرورة تقدر بقدرها
Meaning: perforce is measured by each value
For instance: if you has sick in your genitals, doctor can treat it and also see it although it is forbidden.
ما جاز لعذر بطل بزواله
Meaning: something is allowed because some problem, so it is not allowed again if the problem is lost.
For instance: widow on iddah time can’t go from her home but if she can’t eat except she must work so she is allowed to work.
الإضطرار لايبطل حق الغير
Meaning: perforce is not leaved human right
For instance: someone is very hungry and eat food his friend so he must indemnification
4. FOURTH OF QAIDAH KULLIYAH
Meaning: Don’t do something harmful
4.1. IMPLEMENTATION OF QAIDAH
Cigarette is forbidden for us because harm for our friend (passive-smoker)
4.2. QAIDAH JUZIYYAH
الضرر يدفع بقدر الا مكان
Meaning: damage must be anticipated with force
For instance: the punishment such as qishash is given for murderer, so someone afraid to do it.
الضرر لا يزال بمثله
Meaning: Harmful can’t leaved by harmful
For instance: A has car and B brake his car so A can’t be legitimated to brake B’s car but he can propose claim damage.
5. FIFTH OF QAIDAH KULLIYYAH
Meaning: tradition is be able to be law
5.1. IMPLEMENTATION OF QAIDAH
If broker (intermediary in a sale) has 2% from soil-sale depend on tradition so seller and purchaser must pay him.
5.2. QAIDAH JUZIYYAH
استعمال الناس حجة يجب العمل بها
Meaning: something is used by society as postulate must be done
For instance: mason must be paid depend on common salary or depend on agreement between him and his boss.